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Hungarian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy

Hungarian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy
H-1126 Budapest, Királyhágó tér 8-9. - Hungary

+36 - (1) 356-5068

+36 - (1) 355 - 7975





Directory board of MAITT (2018-2022):


János Gál

János Gál

Vice - President

István Bátai

István Bátai


Petronella Hupuczi

Petronella Hupuczi


Völgyes Barbara

Barbara Völgyes

Detailed information regarding Hungary: gotohungary.com

Milestones of Hungarian anesthesia

  • February 11th, 1847

    4 months following Morton’s narcosis in Boston, Janos Balassa performed its first ether anaesthesia in Budapest.

  • March 9th, 1847

    Council of Governor-General of Pest (later Budapest) issued a statutory rule that required licensed physician supervision during ether anaesthesia.

  • March 10th, 1847

    The world’s third monograph on ether anaesthesia was published by Jozsef Rosenfeld, a Hungarian physician in Leipzig, Germany.

  • 1848-1849

    Hungarian War of Independence was the first war in Europe where ether and chloroform anaesthesia were used in the field.

  • April 1949

    First endotracheal anaesthesia was performed in Budapest.

  • May 1953

    The first full-time anaesthetist, Dr. Laszlo Palos was appointed in Budapest.

  • 1958

    Section of Anaesthesia was established by the Hungarian Society of Surgery.

  • 1961

    The first national conference on anaesthesia was held in Pécs.

  • 1966

    Hungarian Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care was established (hun MAITT, president: Dr .Laszlo Lencz).

  • 2009

    37th National Conference of HSAIC was held in Balatonfüred.

Hungary's contribution to world anaesthesia


March 10th, 1847: World’s third monograph on ether anaesthesia was published by Jozsef Rosenfeld, a Hungarian physician in Leipzig, Germany.

Üveg arcmaszk

Vilmos Vajna, a Hungarian physician, invented a glass facemask that was popular for open ether and chloroform anaesthesia. It was provided with a rubber edge for proper sealing and prevention of burns on the eyes and skin caused by ether. Later, the glass facemask was modified by D.W. Buxton who popularised it in the 1860’s.

Francis F. Földes

Francis F. Foldes, a world-renowned pharmacologist who done research in the field of analgetics and peripheral muscular relaxants. At the age of 31 he left Hungary and initially worked as an anaesthetist at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University; later on at the Mercy Hospital, Pittsburgh, Columbia University as well as the Albert Einstein University. Professor Foldes introduced 2-chloroprocain and naloxone to the practice, developed the technique of continuous muscle relaxant infusion and invented low flow anaesthesia.

Activities of the Society

  • Organising the annual national congress
  • Organising international congresses
  • Establishing and holding trainings and education programs
  • Running a full-scale simulation training center
  • Editing a bi-monthly journal,
  • Editing textbooks for teaching in Hungarian
  • Setting up and maintenance of the official Website
International conferences organised by MAITT
  • 1992: EACTA
  • 1993: IGSC
  • 1999: EAA
  • 2005: EACTA
  • 2007: NATA
Scientific activity in Hungary

The scientific activity of MAITT is organised through national and regional forums. In addition to the MAITT Scientific Committee, there are 5 regional sections responsible for holding scientific symposia, workshops and conferences within their area. There are several smaller symposia all over the country mainly for the local members of the region throughout the whole academic year, whilst two large regular conferences are held annually with attendants from every corner of Hungary. One of them takes place in Debrecen (north-east Hungary), the other one is wandering around year-by-year in the beautiful cities of the South-Trans-Danubian region.
The most eagerly awaited event in our society’s life is the national annual conference which is organised by the MAITT and the Scientific Committee. The number of participants usually exceeds 1200, including nurses and doctors from anaesthesia and intensive care as well as other specialities. The conference lasts for 3 days, with the first day being reserved for courses and workshops. There is also a possibility of submitting abstracts either in Hungarian or English, which are then reviewed by the Scientific Committee and the selected ones are thence orally-presented or displayed as a poster.
A competition awards the eponymous Wittek Prize and the Boros Prize - named after the legendary Hungarian anaesthetists - to junior doctors and researchers. The industry shows a keen interest and actively takes part at our national meetings.
The real scientific work and the actual research are done at the 4 universities. The society has no direct influence on their activities but can support by funding certain projects and sponsoring young researchers to present their results at international meetings.

Honorary Members

  • Francis F. Foldes (†) (USA)
  • Paul Goldiner (USA)
  • Günter Hempelmann (Germany)
  • Barankay András (Germany)
  • Josef A. Richter (Germany)
  • George Silvay (USA)
  • Hans Sonntag (Germany)
  • Dietrich Kettler (Germany)
  • Elena Damir (Russia)
  • Dag Lundberg (Sveden)
  • Werner List (Austria)
  • Gaby Gurmann (Israel)
  • Simon de Lange (Holland)
  • Szabó Zoltán (Hungary)
  • Kulka Frigyes (†) (Hungary)

Medical education in Hungary

Gradual education: 6 years
  • 2 year “basic sciences”
  • 3 years “clinical sciences”
  • 1 year clinical internship
  • Final state examination at the end of the 6th year
Specialist training: 60 months

Basic Specialities; total of 5 years including:

  • 2 years “Formative Residency Training” at universities or accredited teaching hospitals, including 6 months Emergency Medicine training (EMT-ER-ICU)
  • 3 years detailed training program at base hospital where doctor employed on contractual terms;requires a minimum of partial accreditation

Subspecialization: 2 years

  • 100 credit hours
  • Participation in organized courses and scientific meetings accepted by
    the Accreditation Board
Anaesthesia and Intensive Therapy minimal training periods

Intensive Therapy: 18 months

  • 12 months multidisciplinary intensive care unit
  • 2 months pediatric intensive care
  • 2 months neurology/neurosurgery ICU
  • 2 months traumatology and burn care ICU

Anaesthesiology: 18 months

  • 5 months general surgery
  • 3 months trauma and orthopedic surgery
  • 3 months obstetrics and gynecology
  • 3 months pediatric surgery
  • 1 month neurosurgery
  • 1 month cardiac surgery
  • 2 months ENT, oral or eye surgery unit
Anaesthesia and intensive therapy minimum number of cases

Intensive care

  • Central line cannulation: 80
  • Arterial cannula placement: 40
  • Invasive haemodynamic monitoring: 15
  • Bronchoscopy: 10
  • Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: 5
  • Thoracic drainage: 10
  • Temporary pacemaker insertion: 10
  • Intracranial monitoring: 5
  • Donor treatment: 2

General anaesthesia

  • General surgery: 1200
  • Caesarean Section 15
  • Paediatric operations 40
  • Intracranial operations 15
  • Pulmonary operations (selective endobronchial intub.) 15
  • Laparoscopic procedures 25
  • Fiberoscopic intubation 15
  • Nasal intubation 10
  • Day-case anaesthesia 25

Regional anaesthesia

  • Epidural anaesthesia 50
  • Spinal anaesthesia 50
  • Peripheral nerve block 50

Outpatient care

  • Chronic pain outpatient care: 15 cases
  • Anaesthesiology preoperative assessment: 40 cases


MCQ examination by end of 4th year (ESA: EDAIC Part I)
Final examination:


  • 1 week clinical practice, tutor-supervised

Board Examination

  • basic science
  • anaesthesia
  • intensive care
Continuing medical education

Historical background

Obligatory by law since 1958

  • postgraduate course in 5 years minimum
  • financed by state
  • central institutional basis: Postgraduate Medical School, 1958
  • centrally managed programs
  • multi-level structured courses
New regulation: order on CME, 1999
  • obligatory for licence renewal every 5 years by the Medical Chamber
  • organized by medical universities
  • under patronage of Boards of Medical Specialities and the Medical Chamber
  • supervised by the State (Bodies of Ministry of Health)
  • based on credit hours
  • accredited courses and scientific meetings
  • minimum: 250 credit hours / 5 year